Insulin

iStock_000019166919cropped.jpgInsulin discovered by Frederik Banting and Charles Best in 1922.
Early preparations of insulin were purified from pancreas tissue extracted from animals. Today insulin is mostly made bio synthetically by recombinant DNA technology to be closely similar to the natural human insulin.

Types of insulin

  1. Rapid acting

  2. Short acting

  3. Intermediate acting

  4. Long acting

  5. Mixed insulin (short acting & intermediate)

The usage of insulin

The only way to take the insulin is by injection, because it is a protein that can easily be digested in the stomach. Insulin is normally injected under the skin, but in emergency cases or coma, it can be given intravenously.
Where to inject insulin:

  • Abdomen

  • Arms

  • Thighs

  • Buttocks

Factors that affect the insulin absorption:

  • Site of injection

  • Type of the insulin injected

  • Depth of injection

  • Physical activity

  • Temperature of the site of injecting

Remember:

Insulin works faster if

  • Injected in the abdomen, rather than other parts of the body.

  • Injected in the upper extremities of the body rather than the lower extremities.

  • Injected in the muscles rather than under the skin.

  • Physical activity involved in the injecting site.

It is necessary to change the site of injection. Do not inject in the areas of frequent perspiration.

  1. It is important to check expiry date of insulin.

  2. Make sure that you are using the right insulin syringe.

  3. Avoid contaminating injection. Pull back the short acting insulin first (clear), then the long acting one (cloudy).

  4. Dispose of the syringe at the designated place.

How to store insulin

  • Store in the refrigerator door.

  • Store at room temperature in winter or in a cold place for no more than 4 weeks.

  • Keep away from sunlight and intense heat.

  • Never store in the freezer.

  • Never store in the glove compartment of the car or on top of a TV set since vibration affect composition.

  • While traveling keep in insulin bag.

  • Keep out of reach of children.

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